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Microsoft Windows is the name of several families of computer software operating systems created by Microsoft. All versions of Microsoft Windows are commercial proprietary software. Windows Embedded Compact Windows CE is a variation of Microsoft’s Windows operating system for minimalistic computers and embedded systems. Windows CE is a distinctly different kernel, rather than a trimmed-down version of desktop Windows.
Windows Mobile is Microsoft’s discontinued line of operating systems for smartphones. Windows Phone is Microsoft’s discontinued line of operating systems for smartphones. The Windows NT kernel powers all recent Windows operating systems. Windows Embedded CE 6. Installing Windows requires an internal or external optical drive, or a USB flash drive. A keyboard and mouse are the recommended input devices, though some versions support a touchscreen.
For operating systems prior to Vista, an optical drive must be capable of reading CD media, while in Windows Vista onwards, such a drive must be DVD-compatible. The drive may be detached after installing Windows. Maximum limits on physical memory RAM that Windows can address vary depending on both the Windows version and between IA and x64 versions. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Comparison overview of Microsoft Windows versions. Main article: Timeline of Microsoft Windows. Archived from the original on Retrieved Archived from the original on August 12, Archived from the original on November 18, Retrieved August 4, Archived from the original on March 23, Archived from the original on March 10, Archived from the original on November 16, Archived from the original on February 26, Archived from the original on October 6, Archived from the original on October 5, Microsoft Support.
Archived from the original on December 10, Archived from the original on October 29, Retrieved February 5, Archived from the original on December 31, Windows Hardware Development.
May 11, Archived from the original on March 3, Archived from the original on February 10, Retrieved September 2, January Archived from the original on March 7, Archived from the original on June 27, Retrieved May 24, Archived from the original on August 21, Archived from the original on May 11, Archived from the original on May 5, Archived from the original on May 22, Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Basic Computing Using Windows.
Microsoft Windows. Components History Timeline Criticism. Windows 1. Windows 95 Windows 98 Windows Me. Embedded Compact CE 5. Phone 7 Phone 8 Phone 8.
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Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Janus 3. Windows 3. Unsupported . Workstation , Server. IA , IA , x Windows Server Windows Server R2. Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs. Windows Home Server. Windows Home Server IA , x , ARMv7.
Windows 8. Original Release. IA , x , x86 , ARMv7. November Update. Anniversary Update. Creators Update. Fall Creators Update. April Update. October Update. May Update. Essentials, Standard, Datacenter, Datacenter for Azure. Windows Embedded Compact 7. Standard, POSReady. Unsupported  [ dubious — discuss ] . Supported .
Unsupported . Unsupported . Supported . Supported  . Supported . Supported . Supported  . Supported . Supported . Windows Pocket PC
Windows server 2012 r2 essentials oem free
It was a commercially focused operating system intended to complement consumer versions of Windows that were based on MS-DOS including Windows 1. Gradually, the Windows NT family was expanded into Microsoft’s general-purpose operating system product line for all personal computers , deprecating the Windows 9x family. Starting with Windows ,  „NT” was removed from the product name and is only included in the product version string along with several low-level places within the system.
NT was the first purely bit version of Windows, whereas its consumer-oriented counterparts, Windows 3. It is a multi-architecture operating system. One of the main purposes of NT is hardware and software portability. NT has supported per-object file, function, and role access control lists allowing a rich set of security permissions to be applied to systems and services. Windows NT 3. Its companion product, Windows 3. The full preemptive multitasking kernel could interrupt running tasks to schedule other tasks, without relying on user programs to voluntarily give up control of the CPU, as in Windows 3.
Notably, in Windows NT 3. In Windows NT 4, the video, server, and printer spooler subsystems were moved into kernel mode. Windows NT also allows for other installable file systems; since versions 3.
Windows NT introduced its own driver model, the Windows NT driver model, and is incompatible with older driver frameworks. Windows 3. This decision caused tension between Microsoft and IBM and the collaboration ultimately fell apart.
Like VMS,  Windows NT’s kernel mode code distinguishes between the „kernel”, whose primary purpose is to implement processor- and architecture-dependent functions, and the „executive”. This was designed as a modified microkernel , as the Windows NT kernel was influenced by the Mach microkernel developed by Richard Rashid at Carnegie Mellon University,  but does not meet all of the criteria of a pure microkernel.
Both the kernel and the executive are linked together into the single loaded module ntoskrnl. Routines from each are directly accessible, as for example from kernel-mode device drivers. Windows NT was one of the earliest operating systems to use Unicode internally. Windows NT 4. The first release was given version number 3. Also the Novell IPX protocol was apparently licensed only to 3.
The NT version number is not now generally used for marketing purposes, but is still used internally, and said to reflect the degree of changes to the core of the operating system. Starting with Windows 8. If an application is not manifested for Windows 8. Assembly language is avoided where possible because it would impede portability. In order to prevent Intel x86 -specific code from slipping into the operating system by developers used to developing on x86 chips, Windows NT 3.
Both systems were designed internally at Microsoft. Only two of the Windows NT 4. All of the other ports done by third parties Motorola, Intergraph, etc. Microsoft demonstrated a preliminary version of Windows version 6.
According to Microsoft, it is a common misconception that the Xbox and Xbox use a modified Windows kernel. In reality, the Xbox operating system was built from scratch but implements a subset of Windows APIs. Windows 11 is the first non-server version of Windows NT to not support bit platforms.
The minimum hardware specification required to run each release of the professional workstation version of Windows NT has been fairly slow-moving until the 6. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Microsoft computer operating system family.
This article is about the family of operating system versions by Microsoft. For the version released in , see Windows NT 4.
For the 3. Closed-source Source-available through Shared Source Initiative. See also: List of Microsoft Windows versions. Windows Server Blog! Archived from the original on January 17, Archived from the original on April 29, Microsoft DreamSpark.
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IA , x , x86 , ARMv7. November Update. Anniversary Update. Creators Update. Fall Creators Update. April Update. October Update. May Update. Essentials, Standard, Datacenter, Datacenter for Azure. Windows Embedded Compact 7. Standard, POSReady. Unsupported  [ dubious — discuss ] . Supported . Unsupported . Unsupported . Supported . Supported  . Supported . Supported . Supported  . Supported .
Supported . Windows Pocket PC Windows Phone 7. ARM [ citation needed ]. MS-DOS 7. Partial OSR 2. Windows Update. Windows 98 Second Edition. Yes except on CDFS volumes. Yes if the Ion USB update is installed.
Windows Update if Internet Explorer 5 or later is installed. Yes 3. Yes USB 2. Yes 7. IA NT5. Yes Professional Edition only. Windows Storage Server R2 provides an index-based, full-text search based on the indexing engine already built into Windows server.
Windows Storage Server can be promoted to function as a domain controller; however, this edition is not licensed to run directory services. It can be joined to an existing domain as a member server.
Windows Small Business Server SBS is a software suite which includes Windows Server and additional technologies aimed at providing a small business with a complete technology solution. SBS has the following design limitations, mainly affecting Active Directory: . Windows Home Server was announced on January 7, , at the Consumer Electronics Show by Bill Gates and is intended to be a solution for homes with multiple connected PCs to offer file sharing, automated backups, and remote access.
Intended use was for building firewall, VPN caching servers and similar appliances. Availability of the original version ended May 28, Availability of R2 ended March 5, End of extended support was July 14, all variants except Storage Server  , and End of Licence was May 28, R2 and original. All variants continued to receive Critical security updates until the end of extended support: . While many features of the bit variant of Windows XP were brought over into Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, other limitations imposed by constraints such as only supporting bit drivers, and support for bit programs being dropped led to incompatibilities with the bit Windows XP editions available.
Among the improvements are many of the same updates that were provided to Windows XP users with Service Pack 2. Features that are added with Service Pack 1 include:. A full list of updates is available in the Microsoft Knowledge Base. Service Pack 2 for Windows Server was released on March 13, This was followed by build , known as Beta 2 Refresh.
The final build is Microsoft has described Service Pack 2 as a „standard” service pack release containing previously released security updates, hotfixes, and reliability and performance improvements. Service Pack 2 also adds Windows Server Scalable Networking Pack SNP ,  which allows hardware acceleration for processing network packets, thereby enabling faster throughput. Windows Server R2 is an updated release of Windows Server , which contains a copy of Windows Server SP1 on one CD and a host of optionally installed new features on another disc, similar to Microsoft Plus!
New features of Windows Server R2 include: . On July 13, , Windows Server 's mainstream support expired and the extended support phase began. During the extended support phase, Microsoft continued to provide security updates; however, free technical support, warranty claims, and design changes are no longer being offered. Although Windows Server is unsupported, Microsoft released an emergency security patch in May for the OS as well as other unsupported versions of Windows including Windows Vista and Windows 7 RTM without a service pack , to address a vulnerability that was being leveraged by the WannaCry ransomware attack.
Anonymous users from managed to compile the Windows Server source code, as well as a Twitter user who posted videos of the process on YouTube proving that the code was genuine,  but was removed from the platform on copyright grounds by Microsoft.
The leak was incomplete as it was missing the Winlogon source code and some other components. Microsoft issued a statement stating that it was investigating the leaks. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Server operating system by Microsoft released in This article has multiple issues.
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Windows server 2012 r2 essentials oem free.Windows Server 2012
A single license covers up to two physical processors. Windows Server R2 Essentials evaluation editions expire in days. Memory Limit. Related Articles.